Guide for Authors

Submission checklist:

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

  • Email address
  • Affiliation
  • Mobile no.

All necessary files have been uploaded:


  • Include abstract and keywords
  • All figures (include relevant captions)
  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
  • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
  • Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
  • Supplemental files (where applicable)
  • Further considerations
  • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked.'
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • Permission has been obtained for the use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)


Figures and tables embedded in text Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.

Peer review:

To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use your word processor's 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions.

Article structure:

Subdivision - numbered sections:

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its separate line.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods:

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Theory/calculation/literature review:

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.


Results should be clear and concise.


Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. This should explore the significance of the work results, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate.


The study's main conclusions may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information:

  • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should briefly state the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential, they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.


Electronic artwork:

General points:

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
  • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Cambria, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
  • Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.


  • References are documented according to the American Psychological Association (APA) system.
  • References must be listed and numbered at the end of the paper, using Times and New Roman 8pt.
  • Authors should ensure that every reference in the text appears in the list of references and vice versa.
  • Indicate references within the text as numbers only: such as in [14]. For group citations, if you need to refer to multiple references use: [36, 40,62].
  • Unlike references, citations should use the normal font style like paragraph in which they appear.


Online proof correction:

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an email link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correcting proofs online. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential Introduction of errors. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All proof instructions will be given in the email we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.